Types of programmers and protocols

In household appliances, two methods of storing firmware are used, the first is storage in a ROM chip and the second method is storage in the processor, by firmware in this case we mean changing this data, but in order for the computer and microcontroller to exchange information, programmers or adapters between PCs are needed and CPU. Programmers can connect either directly to a memory chip or directly to a microcontroller, but due to the fact that different manufacturers strive for their uniqueness and variety, there are different buses or procedures (protocols) for exchanging this data
виды программаоров.jpg
виды программаоров.jpg

Types of ROM Chip Housings

DIP (English dual in-line package) - a type of microcircuit package, rectangular in shape and having two rows of pins (from 8 to 40) on the long sides. Pin numbering is counterclockwise starting from the top left, considered an older package compared to the SOP.
SOP (Small-Outline Package) is a type of microcircuit package designed for surface mounting, occupies 40-50% less area on the board and is smaller in height.

What is ROM

ROM (Read Only Memory or EEPROM) is one of the memory options used for storing config or storing temporary variables; in fact, it is a flash drive on which the program for SMA is stored. Mostly there are microcircuits of the 24cxx series (where xx is the amount of memory, most often 64, that is, 8192 memory cells, remember this number, it will be mentioned later), these microcircuits operate using the I2C protocol.

i2C data exchange bus

I2C is a bus for connecting various integrated devices using two wires SDA (D - data) and SCL (C - clock). Each device connected to this bus is Master (forms clock and data) or SLAVE (slave device). The voltage in this bus can be either 5V or 3.3V. This technology was developed by Philips back in the 80s, but is still actively used to this day. It has a lot of advantages (simplicity, clarity, etc.), but there are also many disadvantages, which we will probably talk about in more detail in the extended course (Level 2). In addition to this bus, SPI is also actively used in household appliances.

The SPI bus

SPI is a bus with a serial synchronous data transfer standard in duplex (two-way) mode. Unlike I2C, the length of the data packet is not limited to 8 bits, higher throughput is already there.
MOSI master output, slave input
MISO input master (master), output slave (slave).
SCLK (English Serial Clock) serial clock signal.
SS or CS (English: Slave Select, Chip Select).—chip selection, slave selection
The disadvantages are the lack of ability for slaves to manage data, control their receipt and the presence of 4 pins, compared to two on I2C.

What is a programmer?

There are a great many different programmers for different types of chips and microcontrollers, but there is no need to buy them all, and it’s worth noting that you won’t find a universal solution either, but for a lot of money you can look for a programmer that supports the largest number of chips, but it’s all, everything anyway, it will not be supported, so we will look for cheap ones that cover the greatest need, but first let’s decide what we will call a programmer.

A programmer is a device that allows you to connect a computer or user interface (smartphone, tablet) with a memory chip or microcontroller to exchange data. There may be a lot of controversy here, since part of such devices is called a debugging board, and the other part is generally a wire with a set of parts, but we have deliberately simplified this point to make the material easier to understand.

Programmers are available for parallel and in-circuit programming (writing/reading). Where the connection between the programmer and the microcircuit/microcontroller is considered parallel when it is located outside the electronic board (soldered off), and in-circuit is when the programmer pins are soldered directly to the module.
Many manufacturers of household appliances supply their service centers with programmers for their products, but they are very narrow, but in terms of functionality, capabilities and convenience they very often surpass their analogues, although they can only work with a certain brand.

Adapter dip=>sop and clothespins

One of the most common problems for beginners is the SOP package of microcircuits that do not fit directly into any of the programmers that have a zero-force socket on the DIP package and there are two solutions.

The SOP adapter is a device that allows you to quickly and easily clamp an SOP chip for parallel programming. Typically found for SOP-8 (8 legs) or SOP-16 enclosures.

Clamp for in-circuit programming SOP - allows you to connect to the microcircuit without desoldering. Usually comes in SOP-8 package
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