Control modules with asynchronous motors

One of the important parts of any SMA is the drive motor; at the moment, 2 types of motors are common: commutator and asynchronous. Direct drive motors are also known, they are a type of drive such as valve drives, but before delving into the control of these motors, let's understand how electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy of rotor rotation. The principle of operation of an electric motor The first engineers and inventors did not have higher education; no one had yet invented the iPhone, LED lamp or internal combustion engine. The pioneers were observers, they watched how water flowed and the earth rotated, based on this they built their theories and came up with inventions. One of these phenomena was a permanent magnet; you probably played with them as a child, attracting or repelling them from each other. At some point, they came to the conclusion that a magnet has a north pole and a south pole. Magnetic flow is like the flow in a river, which cannot be reversed; the river always flows from source to mouth. With the advent of electricity and the unquenchable courage of inventors, hundreds and thousands of outstanding discoveries were made that changed the life of mankind irrevocably. Surely more than one inventor who almost completed the perpetual motion machine project was killed by electricity in his garage, but history does not keep the names of losers. The first electric magnet was made in his laboratory by the English physicist William Sturgeon, a little-known name within the Russian education system compared to Ohm, Henry and Watt, but it was he who was the first to wind varnished copper wire onto an iron core. When current flowed through the wire, the rod became a magnet, and when the current was interrupted, it instantly lost this property. Sturgeon’s invention laid the foundation and on the basis of this phenomenon it is easiest to understand exactly how an electric motor operates. Of course, in real engines the processes are more complex with self-induction, eddy currents and other difficult-to-understand terms, but we have consciously simplified them. Now imagine an aquarium fish on the window of an apartment, how can it find out about the existence of wind, because it cannot smell or touch it, but thanks to the greatest gift of evolution (sight), it can see it. It’s not that the wind itself can see, because dust is dust, not wind, the tilting crown of a birch is also not wind, but we, like that fish, can see its effect on objects. The effect of the wind is not visible on all objects, and this effect is very dependent on force, since in a weak wind the straw house of the nif-nif does not move, but as soon as the wolf blows harder, the house will fly apart. A magnetic field, like the wind, can either pick up a light (from its point of view) object and carry it like a feather, while it flows around heavy objects. So, from the point of view of the magnetic field, steel is light, since it has low magnetic permeability, i.e. It is easier for the field to pass through steel than through air. And steel, in turn, is a weather vane that tries to align itself along the magnetic field. On the constant desire of some substances to stand along the flow, as well as on the basis of an electromagnet, modern electric motors are made, which, as we have already said, can be commutator and asynchronous, now let's delve a little deeper into their features. The main advantage of the asynchronous drive is the low noise level, as well as the absence of wear on the brushes and commutator, because these machines do not have a commutator-brush unit. Unlike a brushed motor, where the speed varies depending on the supplied voltage, in a brushless motor the speed depends on the number of poles and the frequency of the supply current. For this purpose, control modules are equipped with a frequency converter (inverter). The main function of the inverter is to convert single-phase current from the network into three-phase, with variable frequency. Design of a 3-phase motor frequency converter The main part of the converter is 3 pa
линейные регуляторы напряжения.jpg
линейные регуляторы напряжения.jpg
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